"Headless" browsers pummeled a trading platform's website this past week in a rare form of a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack that lasted for 150 hours.

The attack employed some 180,000 IP addresses -- and as of today continues to rebound in smaller pockets -- according to cloud-based DDoS mitigation service provider Incapsula, which discovered and mitigated the massive attack for its customer.

The company declined to name the targeted organization, only saying it was a trading platform and that the attackers were likely motivated for competitive reasons. "The order of magnitude was significant," says Marc Gaffan, co-founder of Incapsula. "No one has 180,000 IPs at their disposal unless it's an amalgamation of separate botnets they are using interchangeably. This was a sophisticated and thought-out process."

DDoS attacks increasingly have moved up the stack to the application layer, mainly for more targeted purposes, such as disrupting transactions or access to databases. According to new data from Arbor Networks, DDoS attacks, in general, are getting more powerful, but their duration is declining: The average DDoS attack size thus far is 2.64 Gbps for the year, an increase of 78 percent from 2012, and some 87 percent of attacks last less than one hour.

That makes the recent headless browser attack even more unusual, given that its duration was so long. "That's pretty long. Obviously, someone was upset at them," says Marc Eisenbarth, manager of research for Arbor.

The attack also was unusual in that it employed a version of the Phantom JS headless browser toolkit, which is a Web app developer's tool for testing and simulating user browsing of an application. "This was the first time we saw this technology in a DDoS attack," Gaffan says. "It mimics human behavior so effectively that it's a challenge for mitigation services to deal with."

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